This is a page from the 2021 Canadian federal election.

Introduction

You can use this tool to explore each party's policy on pretty much anything. Some parties may not have a policy on everything, and some may just not have announced theirs yet.

Feel free to mark each policy with a disagreeable, neutral, or agreeable. We'll keep track, and tally up which party you agree with most on the final page.




Affordability & Childcare

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Banking


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Canada Child Benefit

Conservative

Allow benefits to begin at the 7th month of pregnancy, rather than at childbirth.
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Canada Workers Benefit

Liberal

  • Expand the Canada Workers Benefit to support ~1M additional Canadians in low-wage jobs.
  • Automatically enrol qualified Canadians in the CWB.
  • Ensure secondary earners can exclude up to $14,000 of their working income when income-testing for CWB.

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Conservative

  • Double the Canada Workers Benefit to a maximum of $2,800 for individuals or $5,000 for families, and pay it as a quarterly direct deposit rather than a tax refund.
  • Double the disability supplement to $1,500.
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Cell & Internet Bills

Conservative

  • Allow foreign telecommunications companies to provide services in Canada, provided Canadian companies can do the same in their countries.
  • Connect all of Canada to high-speed Internet by 2025.
  • Promote investment in comms facilities by local & regional communities & businesses.
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NDP

  • Place a price cap on cell phone & Internet bills.
  • Require providers to offer a basic plan for wireless & broadband that is comparable w/ affordable plans in other countries.
  • Require companies to offer unlimited wireless data options at affordable rates.
  • Ban data caps for broadband Internet.
  • Introduce a Telecom Consumers' Bill of Rights.

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Childcare

Liberal

  • Reduce fees for childcare by 50% next year.
  • Finalise agreements with more provinces & territories to provide $10-a-day childcare within 5 years or less.
  • Create 250K new childcare spaces.
  • Hire 40K more early childhood educators.
  • Work with Quebec to build on its childcare system.
  • Work with Indigenous partners on childcare for Indigenous children.
  • Enact federal childcare legislation.

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Conservative

Convert the Child Care Expense deduction into a refundable tax credit covering up to 75% of childcare for lower income families, and pay it out over the course of the year.
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NDP

  • Introduce legislation committing to high-quality, public childcare.
  • Provide relief funding to re-open spaces lost from COVID-19 at not-for-profit childcare centres at risk of closure.
  • Work with the provinces to build a universal, $10 a day childcare system.
  • Ensure childcare workers are paid a living wage.
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Green

  • Work with governments, Indigenous communities, & the childcare sector to ensure that universal affordable childcare becomes a reality.
  • Increase federal childcare funding to at least 1% of GDP annually.
  • Eliminate GST on construction costs for childcare spaces.
  • Ensure equitable access high-quality, culturally appropriate early learning & childcare programs for First Nations, Inuit, & Métis children.

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Employment Insurance

Liberal

  • Introduce a new EI benefit for self-employed Canadians, delivered through the tax system, providing unemployment assistance comparable to EI & lasting for up to 26 weeks.
  • Create an EI Career Insurance Benefit for people who are laid off when a business they've worked for 5 years closes.

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Conservative

  • Launch a "Super EI" with temporary expanded benefits for provinces in recessions.
  • Extend EI sickness benefits for those suffering from serious illness to 52 weeks.

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NDP

  • Extend EI Sickness Benefits to 50 weeks.
  • Introduce a low income supplement so no one receiving EI regular or special benefits receives less than $2K/mo.
  • Make EI available to people who have quit their jobs to go back to school, provide childcare, or protect their or their family's health.
  • Prevent government from raiding the EI Operating Account.
  • Double leave for parents of multiples.

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Food & Nutrition

Liberal

  • Work with provincial, territorial, municipal, & Indigenous partners, & stakeholders, to develop a National School Food Policy, working towards a national school nutritious meal programme with a $1B investment over 5 years.
  • Restrict commercial marketing of food & beverages to children.
  • Establish new front-of-package labelling to promote healthy food choices.

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Conservative

Increase the maximum fine for fixing food prices from $24 million to $100 million, and introduce criminal penalties for executives.
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NDP

Partner with provinces, territories, municipalities, & Indigenous communities to work towards a national school nutrition programme to give every child access to healthy food and food literacy skills.

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Green

  • Consult with residents of northern communities on Arctic farming.
  • Work with non-profit groups to build greenhouses or hydroponic towers in northern communities.
  • Fund education programmes in nutrition & horticulture in northern communities.
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GST

Conservative

Make all purchases at retail stores GST-free for one month this fall.
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Gas Prices

NDP

  • Create a Fair Gasoline Prices Watchdog to investigate complaints about price gouging.
  • Allow the Competition Bureau to proactively investigate alleged anti-competitiveness in the gasoline market.
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Guaranteed Livable Income

NDP

  • Expand income security programmes for seniors and people living with disabilities.
  • Work towards a Guaranteed Livable Income for every Canadian.

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Green

  • Create a comprehensive & equitable Guaranteed Livable Income for every person in Canada.
  • Payment would be set at a livable level for different regions of the country.
  • Seniors' & children's benefits would remain in place.

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Living in the North

Liberal

Reform the Nutrition North Canada program to make the program more transparent & responsive to Inuit needs.
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Conservative

  • Double the residency deduction, increase the basic amount in the intermediate zone to match the northern zone, and add the Northern Peninsula of Newfoundland, new parts of northern Saskatchewan, and new parts of north-western BC to this zone.
  • Implement a Northern Housing Strategy.
  • Improve Nutrition North.

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NDP

Reform the Nutrition North programme in partnership with northern communities, to improve food security.
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Minimum Wage

NDP

Put in place a federal minimum wage starting at $15/hour and rising to $20/hour, indexed to the cost of living.
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People with Disabilities

Liberal

  • Reintroduce a Disability Benefit Act to create a direct monthly payment for low income Canadians with disabilities ages 18-64.
  • Develop an employment strategy for Canadians with disabilities, including an investment in the Ready, Willing and Able inclusive hiring programme.
  • Create a new stream of the Youth Employment & Skills Strategy Program to support 5K opportunities/year.

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Conservative

Reduce the number of hours required to qualify for the Disability Tax Credit and the Registered Disability Savings Plan from 14 to 10 hours per week.
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NDP

Work with Autistic Canadians to develop and implement a national Autism strategy to coordinate support for research, ensure access to needs-based services, promote employment, & help expand housing options.
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Green

  • Work to create a Canada Disabilities Act.
  • Support a national equipment fund for equipment such as wheelchairs & accessibility tools.
  • Invest in social housing adapted as necessary to meet particular needs.
  • Provide federal health transfer payments for provinces to direct to rehabilitation.
  • Institute a Guaranteed Livable Income for people with disabilities.
  • Make the Disability Tax Credit refundable.

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Climate Change & the Environment

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Animal Protection

Liberal

  • Introduce legislation to end cosmetic testing on animals as soon as 2023, & phase out toxicity testing on animals by 2035.
  • Work with partners to curb illegal wildlife trade & end ivory trade.
  • Introduce legislation to protect animals in captivity.
  • Ban the live export of horses for slaughter.
  • Work with our partners to help women & children fleeing violence to stay with their companion animals.

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Conservative

  • Ban puppy mills.
  • Ban cosmetic testing on animals.
  • Provide $10M/year to train judges & prosecutors on links between violence against animals & violence against people.
  • Increase cross-reporting between animal welfare & child welfare agencies.
  • Add animal cruelty as an aggravating factor in domestic violence prosecutions.

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NDP

Curb the import & domestic trade of wild animals.
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Batteries

Liberal

  • Build an end-to-end, sustainable battery supply chain.
  • Launch a Canada-US Battery Alliance for stakeholders in both countries to identify shared priorities & environmental requirements that lead to an integrated, world-scale battery supply chain.

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Conservative

Support improved electric vehicle battery repurposing & recycling.

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Carbon Capture & Storage

Liberal

  • Continue planting 2 billion trees.
  • Restore & enhance more wetlands, grasslands, & peatlands to capture & store carbon.
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Conservative

  • Provide a tax credit for the deployment of Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage Technology in the energy sector and other industries that burn fossil fuels.
  • Invest in Direct Air Capture.
  • In total, invest $5 billion in Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage.
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Carbon Pricing

Liberal

  • Continue to increase the federal carbon price by $15/tonne each year, reaching $170/tonne by 2030.
  • Work with key trading partners, like the US & EU, to apply Border Carbon Adjustments on imports from countries with less action on climate change.

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Conservative

  • Remove the federal price on carbon.
  • Replace it with a Personal Low Carbon Savings Account, requiring people to pay into their PLCSA every time they fill up.
  • Start the PLCSA at $20/tonne, rising to $50/tonne.
  • People could withdraw from their PLCSA to spend on products to reduce their energy footprint, such as transit passes, green home retrofits, & electric vehicles.
  • Maintain Output Based Pricing.

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NDP

Continue to increase the federal carbon price by $15/tonne each year, reaching $170/tonne by 2030.

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Green

Increase the federal carbon price by $25/tonne each year until 2030.
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Coal

Liberal

Ban thermal coal exports from & through Canada no later than 2030.
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Green

Stop exporting US coal from Canadian ports.
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Conservation

Liberal

  • Establish 10 new national parks in the next 5 years & work w/ Indigenous communities on co-management agreements.
  • Work w/ partners to conserve 25% of lands & waters by 2025 & 30% by 2030.
  • Work to halt nature loss by 2030 w/ a full recovery by 2050.
  • Work w/ Indigenous peoples to support new Indigenous Guardians programs.
  • Build new urban national parks.
  • Establish a $50M BC Old Growth Nature Fund.

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Conservative

  • Protect 17% of Canada's land & water.
  • Work towards protecting 25%.
  • Restore funding for the National Wetland Conservation Fund & the Recreational Fisheries Conservation Partnership Program.
  • Invest an additional $3B between now & 2030 in natural climate solutions.

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NDP

  • Introduce an Environmental Bill of Rights.
  • Strengthen the Canadian Environmental Protection Act.
  • Protect 30% of Canada's land, freshwater, and oceans by 2030.
  • Create a new Civilian Climate Corps to mobilise young people & create jobs supporting conservation efforts.
  • Launch a 10-year plan to reverse species loss.
  • Restrict trade of wild animals.
  • Expand the Indigenous Guardians Programme.

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Green

  • Support Indigenous-led protected & conservation areas.
  • Fund stewardship by Indigenous guardians.
  • Implement Canada's commitments under the Convention on Biological Diversity & follow-up protocols.
  • Protect a minimum of 30% of freshwaters & lands by 2030 & 50% by 2050.
  • Modernise the Canadian Environmental Protection Act.
  • Create a national urban biodiversity regeneration strategy.

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Effects of Climate Change

Liberal

  • Support retrofits & upgrades to protect against extreme weather.
  • Develop flood maps for higher-risk areas in the next 3 years.
  • Create a low-cost national flood insurance programme.
  • Finalise the National Adaption Strategy by 2022.
  • Expand eligibility for CMHC deep home retrofits.
  • Create a Climate Adaption Home Rating Program.
  • Create a nation-wide flood ready information portal.

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Conservative

  • Appoint a national disaster resilience advisor to the Privy Council Office.
  • Implement a national action plan on floods, incl. a residential high risk flood insurance programme.
  • Implement a national climate adaption strategy, incl. addressing flood readiness w/ private sector solutions.
  • Consider mitigation & adaptation in infrastructure investments.
  • Invest $3 billion in natural climate solutions.

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NDP

  • Create a National Crisis Strategy to help communities plan for & respond to climate risks.
  • Create a new Climate Corps of young workers to respond to climate impacts.
  • Create an Office of Environmental Justice to address disproportionate impacts of pollution & loss of biodiversity on low-income, racialised, & other marginalised communities.
  • Expand funding for adaptation & disaster response.

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Green

  • Increase funding for the Disaster Mitigation & Adaptation Fund to support climate resilience projects, including wildfire mitigation, rehabilitation of storm water systems, & restoration of wetlands, shorelines, & other natural infrastructure.
  • Create an independent, scientific, non-partisan, diverse Climate Council to advise the government.

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Emissions Reductions Targets

Liberal

  • Implement the recently passed Net Zero Emissions Accountability Act.
  • Achieve a 40-45% reduction in emissions by 2030 compared to 2005 levels.
  • Achieve net-zero emissions as soon as possible and no later than 2050.
  • Set 5-year targets, & 2025 & 2030 milestones for emissions reductions from the oil & gas sector.
  • Require oil & gas companies to reduce methane emissions by 75% below 2012 levels by 2030.

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Conservative

Reduce targets to 30% below 2005 levels by 2030.
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NDP

  • Set a target to reduce emissions by at least 50% from 2005 levels by 2030.
  • Put in place carbon budgets.
  • Create a Climate Accountability Office.
  • Ensure government financial controls and Crown corporations are aligned with net-zero.
  • Appoint a Climate Emergency Committee of Cabinet.
  • Establish a Climate Emergency Secretariat in the PMO.

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Green

  • Reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 60% below 2005 levels by 2030, with clear, enforceable targets & timelines starting in 2023.
  • Achieve net-zero emissions as quickly as possible, with net-negative in 2050.
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Energy Efficient Buildings

Liberal

  • Provide grants of up to $5K for home retrofits & interest-free loans up to $40K for deep retrofits to improve a home's energy efficiency.
  • Launch a National Net-zero Emissions Building Strategy to get to net-zero emissions from buildings by 2050.
  • Invest $250M to help low-income Canadians get off home-heating oil.
  • Require EnerGuide labelling of homes at time-of-sale.

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Conservative

  • Provide a regulatory & financial framework to facilitate building retrofits, modelled after the SOFIAC programme in Quebec.
  • Provide extra benefits for buildings that complete their retrofits prior to 2030.
  • Develop a Net Zero Foundations program.
  • Work with provinces, territories, & utilities to implement a Residential Building Retrofit Initiative.

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NDP

  • Retrofit all buildings in Canada by 2050, beginning with retrofitting all buildings built before 2020 within the next 20 years.
  • Require large scale building retrofits in all sectors.
  • Provide low-interest loans to help people make home improvements for energy efficiency & air quality.
  • By 2025, require every new building to be net-zero.

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Green

  • Create & implement a national green retrofit of existing residential, commercial, institutional, & industrial buildings.
  • Support agencies & institutions to create programmes to carry out green retrofits in different areas & for different communities.
  • Update the national building code to require all new construction & major renovations to older buildings meet net-zero standards by 2030.

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Energy Grid

Liberal

Create a Pan-Canadian Grid Council to promote infrastructure investments, smart grids, grid integration, & electricity sector innovation.

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Conservative

  • Build a cleaner, more resilient electric grid.
  • Develop and expand smart grids.
  • Improve interties.
  • Increase the use of mass storage.
  • Develop & deploy new clean energy technology such as nuclear, hydrogen, & renewables.

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NDP

Establish a Canadian Climate Bank to support interested provinces to interconnect power grids and start using smart grid technology.

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Green

  • Build inter-ties to link existing provincial grids, creating a national energy corridor for green renewable energy.
  • Implement a national, non-emitting electricity grid.

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Energy Sources

Liberal

  • Introduce a Clean Electricity Standard, with the goal of a 100% net-zero emitting electricity system by 2035.
  • Introduce investment tax credits for renewable energy & battery storage solutions.

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Conservative

  • Invest $1 billion in Small Modular Reactors.
  • Implement a hydrogen energy strategy to increase use of hydrogen, especially green hydrogen, and build export capacity.
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NDP

  • Set a target of net carbon-free electricity by 2030.
  • Set a target of 100% non-emitting electricity by 2040.
  • Establish a Canadian Climate Bank to invest in renewable energy, energy efficiency, & low-carbon tech, and support Canadian manufacturing of renewable energy components.
  • Support investments in community-owned clean energy projects.

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Green

  • Ensure 100% of Canadian electricity is produced from renewable sources by 2030.
  • Ban further development of nuclear power in Canada.
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Environmental Rights

Liberal

  • Pass a strengthened Canadian Environmental Protection Act.
  • Recognise the right to a healthy environment in federal law.
  • Implement mandatory labelling of chemicals in consumer products.
  • Increase testing of imported products for compliance with Canadian standards.
  • Examine & develop a strategy to address the link between race, socio-economic status, & exposure to environmental risk.

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Green

  • Ensure the right to a healthy environment, enforceable in law.
  • Support swift passage of the proposed National Strategy Respecting Environmental Racism and Environmental Justice Act.
  • Expand access to nearby nature, especially for racialised people & those facing systemic barriers.
  • Require labelling of chemicals & GMOs in consumer products.

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Fossil Fuel Subsidies

Liberal

  • Eliminate fossil fuel subsidies by 2023, instead of a previous commitment of 2025.
  • Develop a plan to phase-out public financing of the fossil fuel sector, including from crown corporations.

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NDP

  • Eliminate fossil fuel subsidies and redirect the funding to low carbon initiatives.
  • Place a legislative ban on any future oil, gas, and pipeline subsidies.
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Green

  • End all subsidies to the fossil fuel sector.
  • End leasing of federal lands for fossil fuel production and retire existing licenses.
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Freshwater

Liberal

  • Establish a Canada Water Agency in 2022, working with partners to protect freshwater resources, incl. by developing & updating river basin & large watershed agreements.
  • Modernise the Canada Water Act.
  • Implement a Freshwater Action Plan with $1B over 10 years.
  • Invest $37.5M in the Experimental Lakes Area.
  • Offer municipalities means to manage & regulate boating on their lakes & rivers.

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Conservative

  • Support the completion of the Canadian Wetland Inventory.
  • Provide funding for watershed protection.
  • Work with governments to end raw sewage dumping.
  • Reinstate the Lake Simcoe Clean-Up Fund.
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Green

Create a dedicated, long-term funding programme for water infrastructure.

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Green Innovation

Liberal

  • Develop an investment tax credit of up to 30% for a range of clean tech, including low-carbon & net-zero tech, with input from external experts.
  • Provide incentives for domestic procurement of clean tech.
  • Triple funding for clean tech on farms.
  • Partner with post-secondary institutions & Indigenous organisations to accelerate the creation & growth of Indigenous clean tech businesses.

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Conservative

Provide tax relief to the first 5 facilities that use new technology to meaningfully reduce emissions.

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NDP

  • Increase funding and incentives to clean tech research & manufacturing.
  • Introduce Buy Canadian government procurement policies for green tech.
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Green

  • Develop partnerships across disciplines with government, non-profit organisations, academic institutions, & industry.
  • Invest in research & necessary equipment, including the possibility of a shared climate super computer.
  • Establish a federally-funded $1B Green Venture Capital Fund to support viable local green business start-ups.
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Industrial Carbon Emissions

Liberal

  • Advance green industrial strategies.
  • Continue investing funds from the Net Zero Accelerator in strategic opportunities.
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Conservative

  • Tie Canada's industrial carbon price to the EU's & eventually the US's.
  • Potentially set industrial carbon prices on a path to $170/tonne by 2030.
  • Propose minimum North American standards for key industrial sectors.
  • Study imposing a carbon border tariff on goods imported from countries without compatible emissions reduction mechanisms.

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NDP

  • Place a carbon border adjustment tariff on imported products from areas without a carbon price.
  • Require large businesses receiving COVID recovery funding to agree to plan for net-zero.
  • Put in place joint workplace environment committees to help reduce emissions in every workplace.

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Green

  • Enact a Carbon Border Adjustment.
  • Continuously evaluate the impact of the Carbon Border Adjustment on developing countries through a lens of global environmental justice.

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Low-Carbon Manufacturing

Liberal

Advance green industrial strategies & continue investing funds from the Net Zero Accelerator in strategic opportunities.

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Conservative

Increase export of resources where Canada produces lower-pollution versions, including aluminum.

NDP

Work with governments, business, & labour to create a national industrial strategy for low-carbon manufacturing.
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Natural Gas & LNG

Conservative

  • Focus on exporting Liquefied Natural Gas.
  • Ensure new LNG facilities are electrified.
  • Require at least 15% of natural gas to come from renewable content by 2030.

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Pesticides

Liberal

  • Strengthen the Pest Control Products Act.
  • Invest in further government & independent science, including water & soil monitoring & on the cumulative effects of multiple pesticides on health & the environment.
  • Ensure the impacts on wildlife are fully considered.
  • Support food producers who choose alternative pest management approaches that reduce the need for chemical pesticides.

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Green

  • Set targets for reducing the use of pesticides in agriculture.
  • Assist farmers in moving to organic & regenerative farming.
  • Revive & expand the National Pesticides Monitoring & Surveillance Network.
  • Create an adverse effects reporting database for doctors & emergency rooms to track health impacts of pesticides & other chemicals.
  • Ban neonicotinoid pesticides.
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Project Impact Assessments

Conservative

  • Revert the changes to the Impact Assessment Act made under Bill C-69.
  • Create an accelerated Impact Assessment process.
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NDP

  • Overhaul the review process for major projects to ensure adequate time for public consultation.
  • Provide core funding to support Indigenous communities participating in review processes.

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Shipping & Marine Protection

Liberal

  • Establish 10 new marine conservation areas in the next 5 years.
  • Renew & expand the Coastal Restoration fund.
  • Modernise the Oceans Act to explicitly consider climate change impacts on marine ecosystems & species.
  • Expand the Ghost Gear Program to clean up oceans & coasts.
  • Invest $50M in community shoreline cleanup.
  • Create a national working group on climate-resilient ocean conservation planning.

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Conservative

Re-allow the shipping of oil and petroleum products on the North Coast of British Columbia by repealing Bill C-48.
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NDP

  • Expand marine protected areas.
  • Reduce emissions from shipping & fishing.
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Green

  • Include Indigenous Peoples in all aspects of marine protection site selection, management, & decision-making.
  • Commit permanent funding for marine conservation.
  • Support a ban on deep seabed mining until at least 2030.
  • Implement an Extended Producer Responsibility program for synthetic fishing gear.
  • Set zero-emissions targets for marine vessels by 2040 & ports & inland vessels by 2030.

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Sustainable Finance

Liberal

  • Move toward mandatory climate-related financial disclosures.
  • Require climate-related financial disclosures & development of net-zero plans for federally-regulated institutions.
  • Issue green bonds annually, worth at least $5B.
  • Develop a climate data strategy.
  • Work with financial experts through the Sustainable Action Council to develop a net-zero capital allocation strategy.

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Green

Require federal public investment funds, including the CPP Investment Board, to divest from fossil fuels.
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Toxic Substances

Green

  • Limit CEPA approval & use of toxic chemicals that affect human health & environment.
  • Regulate microfibres as a toxic substance under CEPA.
  • Ban all toxic ingredients in personal care products.

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Waste

Liberal

  • Require that plastic packaging contain 50% recycled content by 2030.
  • Work w/ provinces & territories on recycling targets for plastic bottles.
  • Prohibit using the ♲ symbol on a product unless 80% of recycling facilities accept it.
  • Require producers to report the amount, type, & end-of-life management of plastics.
  • Implement right-to-repair & encourage with a tax credit.
  • Create a No-Waste Food Fund.

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Conservative

Ban the export from Canada of plastic waste to be finally be disposed of in foreign countries.
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NDP

  • Immediately ban single-use plastics, while supporting transition of production facilities for single-use plastics to new products.
  • Ban the export of plastic waste.
  • Reduce electronic waste by expanding right-to-repair.
  • Develop a national food waste strategy.

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Green

  • Ban non-essential, single-use plastics by the end of the year.
  • Promote green procurement practices.
  • Promote sustainable waste management systems.
  • Promote a legally-binding global plastics agreement.
  • Ratify the Basel Ban Amendment.

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Wildfires

Liberal

  • Train 1,000 new community-based firefighters.
  • Work with provinces & territories to provide firefighters with needed equipment, including Canadian-made planes.
  • Support & expand Indigenous-led fire crews & build capacity to better incorporate Indigenous traditional knowledge strategies in fire management.

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Conservative

Invest in forest health and wildfire prevention & early detection.
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NDP

Make focused investments in forest management to reduce forest fire risk.

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Green

  • Create fire breaks & fire suppression.
  • Provide physical resources to deal with fires quickly.
  • Include fire mitigation subsidies to owners of rural properties, allowing them to better manage the health of their forests.
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Worker Transition

Liberal

  • Establish a $2B Futures Fund for Alberta, Saskatchewan, & Newfoundland & Labrador, design in collaboration with local workers, unions, educational institutions, environmental groups, investors, & Indigenous peoples.
  • Support local & regional economic diversification.
  • Move forward with Just Transition legislation.
  • Launch a Clean Jobs Training Centre to help workers upgrade or gain new skills.

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Green

  • Introduce a Just Transition Act before the end of 2021.
  • Plan for a fair transition of workers towards a decarbonised economy, that protects communities from displacement, & in which affected people are leading the preparation of their transition strategies.
  • Use wage insurance, retraining programmes, & early retirement plans.

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Education

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Apprenticeship

Liberal

  • Double the Union Training & Innovation program to $50M/year.
  • Target participation in the Union Training & Innovation program from women, Indigenous people, newcomers, persons with disabilities, & Black & racialised Canadians.
  • Establish a new Apprenticeship Service to connect 55K first-year apprentices in Red Seal trades with opportunities at small & medium-sized employers.

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Conservative

Double the Apprenticeship Job Creation Tax Credit for the next three years.
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Job Training

Liberal

Require businesses supported through the Sectoral Workforce Solutions Program to include wrap-around supports for training for women & vulnerable groups.

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Conservative

  • Double the Apprenticeship Job Creation Tax Credit for three years.
  • Invest $250 million over two years in grants for organizations running projects that help workers get job training.
  • Provide low interest loans up to $10,000 to people who want to upgrade their skills.

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NDP

  • Allow workers who quit a job to go to school to qualify for EI benefits.
  • Require large employers to spend at least 1% of payroll on training for employees each year.
  • Create a new provincially-directed Workers Development and Opportunities Fund to expand training options beyond those who qualify for EI.

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Green

  • Increase the Canada Training Benefit.
  • Support post-secondary institutions to provide new, innovative academic offerings.
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Post-Secondary Tuition

Liberal

  • Permanently eliminate federal interest on Canada Student Loans & Canada Apprentice Loans.
  • Increase the repayment assistance threshold to $50K for Canada Student Loan borrowers who are single.

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NDP

  • Work with the provinces & territories to cap & reduce tuition fees.
  • Work towards rolling post-secondary into the public education system.
  • Remove interest on federal student loans.
  • Forgive up to $20,000 in student debt for graduates.
  • Double the Canada Students Grant.

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Green

  • Abolish post-secondary education tuition.
  • Cancel all federally-held student loan debt.
  • Introduce a $2,000/mo retroactive Canada Emergency Student Benefit, until the pandemic is over.
  • Remove the 2% cap on increases in education funding for Indigenous students.
  • Improve funding in federal-provincial transfers to universities & colleges.

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Public School Educators

Liberal

  • Increase the refundable Eligible Educator School Supply Tax Credit from 15% to 25%.
  • Expand eligibility criteria on the Educator School Supply Tax Credit to include tech devices & and all teaching supplies purchased to perform employment duties.

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Health & Healthcare

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Access to Abortion

Liberal

  • Require that everyone, regardless of location, has access to sexual & reproductive health services under the Canada Health Act, with penalties for non-compliant provinces.
  • Create a portal for sexual & reproductive health info, w/ a section countering abortion misinfo.
  • Provide $10M to youth-led grassroots organisations.
  • Remove charity status for anti-abortion orgs that provide dishonest counseling.

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Conservative

  • A Conservative Government will not support any legislation to regulate abortion.
  • A Conservative government will include conscience provisions for healthcare professionals.
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NDP

  • Act immediately to make sure that people can access safe abortion services in all regions.
  • Enforce the Canada Health Act to make sure provinces make medical and surgical abortion available in all parts of the country, without barriers.
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Green

  • Negotiate the Canada Health Accord to prioritise access to safe abortion services.
  • Oppose any possible government move to diminish access to safe, legal abortion.

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Air Quality & Ventilation

Liberal

  • Provide a $100M top-up to the Safe Return to Class Fund for ventilation improvements.
  • Provide $10M for First Nations to improve air quality in on-reserve schools.
  • Provide $100M to the Canada Healthy Communities Initiatives, with $70M for increasing air quality & indoor ventilation.
  • Provide a tax credit for small businesses who invest in better ventilation.

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COVID Testing

Conservative

  • Deploy rapid testing at all border entry points and airports to screen all arrivals, regardless of vaccination status.
  • Accelerate Health Canada approval for new rapid tests.
  • Make at-home rapid tests available.
  • Provide more rapid tests to provincial governments.

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COVID Vaccination

Liberal

  • Require all travellers on inter-provincial trains, commercial flights, cruise ships, & other federally-regulated vessels be vaccinated.
  • Ensure vaccination of the federal public service.
  • Launch a $1B Proof of Vaccination Fund to support provinces & territories to implement proof-of-vaccine credentials.
  • Allow organisations to require proof of vaccination for employees & customers.
  • Procure boosters.

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Conservative

  • Prioritize signing contracts for booster shots.
  • Accelerate homegrown development and production of vaccines by Canadian companies.
  • Support the provinces with whatever logistical resources they need to deliver vaccines and booster shots.
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Contraception

NDP

Ensure that a full range of prescription contraceptive & reproductive health care options are easily accessible at no cost through Medicare.
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Dental Care

NDP

  • Work with provincial partners, health professionals, & dentists to develop a road-map to including universal dental care into Medicare.
  • Provide immediate dental care coverage for people who don't have any private insurance.

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Green

Expand Medicare to include free dental care for low-income Canadians.
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Future Pandemics

Liberal

Invest $100 million in studying the long-term health impacts of COVID-19, including the effects of long-COVID on different groups.

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Conservative

  • Increase vaccine research & production capacity.
  • Review regulatory processes.
  • Increase domestic production of critical supplies.
  • Prepare stockpiles, testing.
  • Support closing poorly regulated wildlife markets.
  • Improve public health intelligence.
  • Overhaul Canada's Pandemic Plan.

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NDP

  • Provide stable, long-term funding for the Public Health Agency of Canada to protect public health and be ready with surge capacity for future crises.
  • Establish a crown corporation to produce vaccines in Canada.
  • Ensure an adequate, responsible-managed stockpile of PPE, with an emphasis on domestic production.
  • Protect the Chief Public Health Officer's independence in law.

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Green

  • Create an intergovernmental rapid response task force, to be activated immediately when facing emergencies.
  • Ensure robust capacity for pharmaceutical manufacturing.
  • Increase domestic production of PPE.
  • Lessen overall dependence on global supply chains for essential goods & services.
  • Strengthen the Global Public Health Intelligence Network.
  • Provide long-term funding to the Public Health Agency.

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Health Funding

Liberal

  • Invest an additional $6 billion to help eliminate health system wait-lists.
  • Provide $3.2 billion for provinces & territories to hire 7,500 family doctors, nurses, & nurse practitioners.
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Conservative

Meet with the Premiers within 100 days to propose a new health agreement with provinces and territories, increasing the annual growth rate of the Canada Health Transfer to at least 6%.
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Green

  • Increase health transfers by basing them on demographics & healthcare needs in each province.
  • Reevaluate the Canada Health Transfer to cover rural communities with an equitable amount of funding to meet the needs of the community.

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Healthcare Access

Liberal

  • Provide $400 million over 4 years to support virtual care.
  • Expand Canada Student Loans debt forgiveness to more healthcare professionals & increase the amount forgiven by 50%.
  • Offer healthcare professionals a 1-time income tax deduction up to $15k over their first 3 years of practice.
  • Increase federal powers to deduct funding from provinces who add extra billings for publicly insured services.

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NDP

  • Work with provinces & territories to reduce wait times and improve access to primary care.
  • Work with the provinces to develop public infrastructure for secure, accesibile virtual healthcare.
  • Identify coming gaps in health human resources, & make a plan for recruiting & retaining doctors, nurses, & other healthcare professionals.

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Green

  • Reduce wait times, particularly for primary care.
  • Support provinces in implementing new delivery models, such as telemedicine.
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Medical Assistance in Dying

Conservative

  • Reinstate the 10-day waiting period.
  • Require 2 fully independent witnesses to ensure a vulnerable person isn't coerced.
  • Allow discussion of MAID only if raised by the patient.
  • Disallow MAID for those w/ mental health challenges.
  • Give opportunity to withdraw consent right before.
  • Include conscience provisions for healthcare professionals.

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Menstrual Products

Liberal

  • Provide free tampons & pads in federally-regulated workplaces.
  • Create a $25M Menstrual Equity Fund for women's shelters, not-for-profits, charities, community-based organisations, & youth-led organisations to make menstrual products available to vulnerable women.
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NDP

Work with provinces, territories, & Indigenous governments to end period poverty.
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Natural Health Products

NDP

Regulate natural health products with stand-alone legislation.
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Palliative Care

Conservative

Double direct federal investments in palliative care.
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NDP

Work with provinces and territories to expand and improve access to palliative care.
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Pharmacare

NDP

  • Work with the provinces to expand Medicare to cover prescription drugs, with a $10B/year federal investment.
  • Develop a national strategy to cover drugs for rare diseases.

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Green

  • Expand the Canada Health Act to fully fund a universal pharmacare programme.
  • Create a bulk drug purcahsing agency.
  • Reduce drug patent protection periods.
  • Establish a clear timeline for implementing universal pharmacare, with a Canadian Drug Agency established and a programme covering a list of essential medicines launched in 2022, and a comprehensive programme rolled out by 2025.

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Review of COVID Response

Conservative

  • Call an immediate public inquiry into the government's pandemic response.
  • Work with allies to support an investigation into the origins of COVID-19.
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Green

Order a public inquiry to evaluate the joint response between all levels of government to examine what went well & what could have been done better.

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Housing & Homelessness

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Homelessness

Liberal

  • Appoint a Federal Housing Advocate within 100 days of a new mandate, to ensure federal government commitments are fulfilled.
  • Invest in Reaching Home: Canada's Homelessness Strategy.

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Conservative

  • Re-implement the Housing First approach.
  • Revise the federal government's substance abuse policy framework to make recovery its overarching goal.
  • Invest $325 million over 3 years for 1,000 residential drug treatment beds & 50 recovery community centres.

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NDP

  • Fully implement the right to housing.
  • Work toward ending homelessness in Canada within a decade.
  • Support the creation of more social housing & other affordable options.
  • Work with provinces & municipalities to fast-track the purchase, lease, & conversion of hotels & motels for emergency housing relief until more permanent solutions are available.
  • Expand income security programs.

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Green

  • Declare housing affordability & homelessness a national emergency.
  • Support existing youth shelters & other infrastructure through federal grants.
  • Invest in creating new youth shelter sin urban & small urban centres.
  • Remove shelter maximum stays for youth.
  • Provide on-site & remote access guidance counselling & therapy for homeless youth.
  • Provide optional relocation services for rural homeless youth.

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Housing Prices

Liberal

  • Place a tax on residential properties that are sold within 12 months of purchase.
  • Ban foreign purchasing of non-recreational, residential property for 2 years, excluding future employment or immigration.
  • Introduce a new rent-to-own programme, & commit $1B in loans & grants to scale up rent-to-own.
  • Introduce a tax-free First Home Savings Account.
  • Double the First-Time Home Buyers Tax Credit.

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Conservative

  • Ban foreign investors not living in or moving to Canada from buying homes here for a two year period, after which it will be reviewed.
  • Encourage foreign investment in purpose-built, affordable rental housing.
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NDP

  • Place a 20% tax on the sale of homes to people who aren't citizens or permanent residents.
  • Double the Home Buyer's Tax Credit to $1,500.
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Green

  • Declare housing affordability & homelessness a national emergency.
  • Create national standards to establish rent & vacancy controls.
  • Provide a retroactive residential arrears program for Canadians at risk of eviction or of being driven into homelessness due to accumulated rent.
  • Raise the empty homes tax for foreign & corporate residential property owners.

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Housing Supply

Liberal

  • Build an additional 250,000 over the next 4 years.
  • Invest $4B in a new Housing Accelerator Fund, which will provide application-based funding for municipalities.
  • Invest in e-permitting technology.
  • Permanently increase funding to the National Housing Co-investment fund by $2.7B over 4 years, for more affordable housing.
  • Commit $600M to support converting empty office & retail space into housing.

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Conservative

  • Use infrastructure investments, such as transit, to increase housing supply.
  • Release at least 15% of the government's real estate portfolio for housing.
  • Incent landowners to donate property to Land Trusts for affordable housing.

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NDP

  • Create 500,000 affordable housing units, or more, over the next 10 years, with half done in the next 5 years.
  • Set up dedicated "fast-start funds" for building co-op, social, and non-profit housing.
  • Provide federal land for housing projects.
  • Waive GST/HST on construction of affordable rental units.

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Green

  • Update the formula for defining affordable housing, accounting for regional variance.
  • Fund non-profit & co-op purchasing of existing buildings.
  • Expand the Rapid Housing Initiative.
  • Invest in building & operating 50K supportive housing units over 10 years.
  • Build & acquire 300K units of coop & non-profit housing over 10 years.
  • Create a Co-op Housing Strategy.
  • Refocus CMHC on supporting affordable, non-market, & co-op housing.
  • Appoint a Minister of Housing.

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Money Laundering

Liberal

  • Establish a Canada Financial Crimes Agency to investigate & combat major financial crime.
  • Increase regulatory power to respond to housing price fluctuations & ensure a more stable housing market.

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Conservative

  • Enact changes to the Proceeds of Crime (Money Laundering) And Terrorist Financing Act.
  • Establish a Beneficial Ownership Registry for residential property.
  • Implement recommendations from the Commission of Inquiry into Money Laundering in British Columbia on a federal level.

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NDP

  • Work with the provinces to create a public beneficial ownership registry, to clarify who owns properties.
  • Require reporting of suspicious transactions.
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Green

Crack down on money laundering in Canadian real estate.
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Mortgages

Liberal

  • Allow people using the First Time Home Buyer Incentive to choose between a shared-equity approach & a loan that is repayable at time of sale.
  • Reduced the price charged by CMHC on mortgage insurance by 25%.
  • Increase the insured mortgage cut-off from $1M to $1.25M, & index it to inflation.

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Conservative

  • Encourage a new market in seven- to ten-year mortgages.
  • Remove the stress test requirement when a homeowner renews a mortgage with another lender.
  • Increase the limit on eligibility for mortgage insurance and index it to home price inflation.
  • Reform the mortgage stress test.

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NDP

  • Re-introduce 30-year terms on CMHC insured mortgages on entry-level homes for first time home buyers.
  • Double the Home Buyer's Tax Credit to $1,500.
  • Provide resources to help co-housing, including CMHC-backed co-ownership mortgages.

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Renter & Home-Buyer Protections

Liberal

  • Create a national Home Buyers' Bill of Rights.
  • Convene federal & provincial regulators to develop a national action plan to increase consumer protection & transparency in real estate transactions.
  • Deter unfair rent increases.
  • Require landlords to disclose on their tax filing the rent they receive pre- and post-renovation, & implement a proportional surtax if the increase in rent is excessive.

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Green

  • Immediately appoint a Federal Housing Advocate.
  • Place a national moratorium on evictions until the pandemic is over, & for a reasonable time after, in cooperation with provincial governments.
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Human Rights & Equality

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Conversion Therapy

Liberal

  • Within 100 days, reintroduce legislation to ban conversion therapy.
  • Extend the ban to include people over 18 years of age.

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Conservative

  • Ban conversion therapy.
  • Clarify that the ban does not criminalise non-coercive conversations.
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NDP

  • Immediately legislate a ban on conversion therapy.
  • Work with the provinces & territories to support eliminating conversion therapy.
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Green

Ban & condemn the practice of conversion therapy, in all its forms.
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Data Privacy

Conservative

Pass legislation giving Canadians the right to understand & control the collection, use, monitoring, retention, and disclosure of their personal data.
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NDP

  • Bring in legislation to prevent credit & debit card companies from selling customers' personal information.
  • Update privacy legislation to include a digital bill of rights.
  • Increase the powers of the Privacy Commissioner to make & enforce orders & levy finds & penalties.
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Green

  • Enshrine citizens' digital rights, including the right to not be profiled online.
  • Distinguish between demographic profiling & psychometric profiling.
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Employment Discrimination

Liberal

  • Adapt & apply the Canada Business Corporations Act diversity requirements to federally-regulated financial institutions.
  • Require Crown corporations to implement gender & diversity reporting, beginning next year.

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NDP

  • Add sexual orientation, & gender identity & expression to the Employment Equity Act.
  • Conduct a comprehensive review of the existing employment equity regime to help close the racialised wage gap.
  • Strengthen labour laws.
  • Ensure diverse & equitable hiring within the federal public service & federally-regulated industries.
  • Work with the provinces & territories on employment equity legislation.

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Green

Support the 23 recommendations outlined in the LGBT Purge Fund's report "Emerging from the Purge".
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Gender Equity

Liberal

  • Adapt & apply the Canada Business Corporations Act diversity requirements to federally-regulated financial institutions.
  • Require Crown corporations to implement gender & diversity reporting, beginning next year.

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Conservative

  • Implement a national mentorship strategy for women of all ages to prepare & help them network for senior leadership roles in corporations & civil society.
  • Seek out qualified female candidates for federal appointments.
  • Require federally-regulated corporations & federally-mandated organisations to implement recruitment plans to seek out qualified female candidates for senior leadership positions.
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NDP

  • Prioritise pay equity by requiring employers to be transparent about pay & implementing pro-active pay equity legislation & regulations right away.
  • Introduce legislation to encourage political parties to run more women candidates.
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Green

  • Pass pay equity legislation.
  • Immediately implement full pay equity for women employed in the federal sector.
  • Develop tax incentives for companies to meet standards.
  • Establish specific job reentry programmes for women with children.
  • Advocate that all political parties nominate, train, & support more women & gender-diverse candidates.

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Hate Crimes & Hate Speech

Liberal

  • Present a National Action Plan on Combating Hate by 2022 as part of a renewed Anti-Racism Strategy.
  • Establish a National Support Fund for Survivors of Hope-Motivated Crimes to help with uninsured costs for survivors.

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Conservative

  • Clearly criminalise statements that encourage violence against people or identifiable groups, focusing on online incitement.
  • Provide $25M to law enforcement to quickly investigate online threats of violence, hate speech, & disinformation campaigns by foreign governments or extremist groups.
  • Require social media platforms to remove illegal content, such as content that incites violence.
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NDP

  • Work to ensure all major cities have dedicated hate crime units within local police forces.
  • Convene a national working group to counter online hate.
  • Set national standards for identifying & recording all hate incidents.
  • Create a national action plan to dismantle far-right extremist organisations.
  • Make social media platforms legally responsible for removing hateful & extremist content.

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Green

Develop better guidelines to address the weaponisation of free expression to promote hate speech & propaganda.
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Indigenous & Black Incarceration

Liberal

Develop a Black Canadians Justice Strategy to address anti-Black racism and discrimination in the criminal justice system.
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NDP

  • Start a national task force to create a plan to end over-incarceration of Black & Indigenous people.
  • Address the impacts of mandatory minimums.
  • Provide greater judicial discretion in sentencing.
  • Develop culturally appropriate bail programmes.
  • Increase restorative & community justice.
  • Better integrate Gladue principles.
  • Develop & implement an African Canadian Justice Strategy.

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Green

  • Expand on & codify the requirement for sentencing judges to take into account systemic & historical racism.
  • Develop clear laws & guidelines aligned with R. v. Ipeelee & R. v. Gladue.
  • Implement additional laws to reduce incarceration of Indigenous peoples.
  • Eliminate mandatory minimum sentences.

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LGBTQ2 Rights & Opportunities

Liberal

  • Complete the Federal LGBTQ2 Action Plan within 100 days.
  • Provide $40M over 4 years for capacity funding to Canadian LGBTQ2 service organisations.

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Green

  • Establish a funding programme within Health Canada to support community-based organisations offering targeted LGBTQI2+ youth mental health & well-being programmes.
  • Fund community-driven education & awareness programmes & referral programmes.
  • Ban & condemn the practice of medically unnecessary surgeries on intersex children.

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Race-Based Data

NDP

  • Prioritise collecting race-based data on health, employment, policing, & more with the goal of improving outcomes for racialised communities.
  • Work with provinces to improve race-based data collection.
  • Develop reporting & accountability mechanisms alongside racialised & Indigenous communities.
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Racism & Discrimination

Liberal

  • Increase funding to both the Anti-Racism Strategy & the Federal Anti-Racism Secretariat.
  • Increase funding to multicultural community programmes.

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Green

  • Implement all TRC Calls to Action.
  • Implement all Calls to Justice from the Final Report of the National Inquiry into Missing & Murdered Indigenous Women & Girls.
  • Implement the recommendations of the Report of the UN Working Group of Experts on People of African Descent on its Mission to Canada.
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Sex Work

Green

  • Reform sex work laws to focus on harm reduction.
  • Legalise the sex work industry.
  • Increase funding for community organisations providing services to those driven to sex work by economic deprivation.

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Solitary confinement

Green

  • Immediately ensure the Federal Advisory Committee on Prisoner Isolation receives access to required information to monitor the state of solitary confinement in Canada's prisons.
  • Ensure the recommendations of the Office of the Correctional investigator with respect to Structured Intervention Units are implemented.
  • Implement the Senate amendments to Bill C-83.

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The Blood Ban

Conservative

End the blood ban.
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NDP

Immediately end the blood ban and put in place policies based in public health evidence to secure the blood supply.
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Green

End the blood ban.
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Trans Health & Access

NDP

  • Work with the provinces to ensure equal access to gender-affirming surgery across the country, & that gender-affirming procedures & medication is covered by public health plans.
  • Review & eliminate systemic barriers related to gender in the delivery of federal public services.
  • Provide funding to support the creation & expansion of shelters for trans youth.
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Green

  • Negotiate the Canada Health Accord to prioritise access to gender-affirming health services.
  • Listen to feedback on census questions.
  • Ensure trans, non-binary, & Two Spirit people are able to alter their sex designation on all federally-issued documents, without undertaking surgeries.
  • Require accessible facilities in all federal buildings, including gender-neutral washrooms & changing facilities.

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Immigration & Refugees

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Administrative Backlogs

Conservative

  • Create an efficiency mechanism, where those waiting for their applications to be reviewed can pay a fee for expedited processing, with revenue collected going to hiring additional staff for processing.
  • Attempt to identify unutilised resources.
  • Simplify and streamline the application process and eliminate duplication.
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CBSA

Green

Revise all CBSA practices, including operation of immigration detention centres, family separation, & developing an oversight mechanism, including a Civilian Complaint & Review Commission.
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Credential Recognition

Liberal

Work with provinces, territories, & regulatory bodies to improve foreign credential recognition.
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Conservative

Immediately launch a Credential Recognition Task Force to develop new credential recognition strategies.

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NDP

Improve foreign credentials recognition.
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Green

  • Review & update accreditation policies & licensing programmes.
  • Work with accreditation institutions to recognise foreign training & education.
  • Allocate more funding to provide training language & employment skills, & accreditation recognition for any newcomers legally eligible to work in Canada.
  • Incentivise employers to hire newcomers & refugee claimants.

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Family Reunification

Liberal

  • Reduce processing times to under 12 months.
  • Introduce electronic applications for family reunification.
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Conservative

  • Scrap the lottery system for family reunification.
  • Create a first-come-first-served system with weighting to prioritise applicants on criteria such as providing child care or family support, and language proficiency.
  • Invest additional resources in processing applications.
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NDP

  • End caps on applications to sponsor parents & grandparents.
  • Treat caregivers brought to Canada with respect & dignity, provide them with status, & allow them to reunite with their families without delay.
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Green

  • Increase the number of accepted applications for parent & grandparent sponsorship by IRCC.
  • Review adoption bans for Muslim majority countries.
  • Remove visa requirements for most parents visiting their children.

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Immigration Process

Liberal

  • Make the citizenship application process free for permanent residents who have fulfilled the requirements needed to obtain it.
  • Implement a program to issue visas to spouses & children abroad while they wait for processing of their permanent residency application.

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Conservative

  • Record all interactions between immigration officers & applicants to ensure oversight, fairness, & accountability.
  • Use technology to speed application vetting.
  • Increase cultural awareness training.
  • Use remote meeting technology to match applicants with immigration officers who best understand their cultural context.
  • Let applicants correct simple application mistakes within a set amount of time.

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NDP

Regulate the immigration consultancy industry.
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Green

  • Update the citizenship guidebook to include a more accurate history of Canada & Turtle Island, including residential schools & the Indian Act.
  • Address all forms of hate & xenophobia in all aspects of settlement in Canada.
  • Introduce exceptions for permanent residency & citizenship application costs based on household income.

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Refugees

Liberal

Work with employers & communities to welcome 2K skilled refugees to fill labour shortages in sectors like healthcare.

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Conservative

  • Replace all public, government-assisted refugee places with more private & joint sponsorship places, except for special cases.
  • Make the Rainbow Refugee Assistance Project a permanent program.
  • Allow private sponsorship of the most vulnerable victims of persecution directly from their country of origin.
  • Create a program to allow direct private sponsorship of persecuted religious & sexual minorities.

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NDP

  • Get rid of the backlog for asylum seekers.
  • Work with Canadians to resettle refugees in communities.
  • Ensure refugees are given the support they need to build successful lives & new homes.
  • Establish a clear & permanent path for resettlement of LGBTQI2S+ refugees.
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Green

  • Terminate the Safe Third Country Agreement with the US.
  • Address processing time & unaffordable application fees.
  • Eliminate status-based service requirements.
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Temporary Foreign Workers

Liberal

  • Reform economic immigration programmes to expand pathways to Permanent Residence for temporary foreign workers & former international students through the Express Entry points system.
  • Create a Trusted Employer system with a streamlined application process for Canadian companies hiring temporary foreign workers to fill labour shortages that can't be filled by Canadian workers.
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Conservative

  • Create a trusted employer system so companies don't have to reapply.
  • Work with provinces to harmonise federal & provincial systems.
  • Set clear standards & timelines for Labour Market Assessment processes, including options for fee-based expedited visas when needed.
  • Revise how regions are zoned to ensure rural areas & tourism hotspots are not coupled with urban hubs.
  • Establish a path to permanence.
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Green

  • Introduce low-barrier, more accessible pathways to permanent residency for temporary foreign workers.
  • Develop safe strategies for temporary foreign workers & whistle blowers to report abusive employers without losing their status.

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Visas

Liberal

Implement a program to issue visas to spouses & children abroad while they wait for processing of their permanent residency application.

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Conservative

  • Increase the capacity of the Immigration and Refugee Board to hear asylum claims.
  • Strengthen integrity and enforcement overall.
  • Explore requiring more enforceable commitments for visitors to abide by.
  • Allow family members of citizens to come & live in Canada for up to 5 years without permanent status, renewing their stay for additional time, where appropriate, if they purchase health insurance.

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Green

Remove visa requirements for most parents visiting their children.

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Indigenous Relations & Reconciliation

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Drinking Water

Liberal

  • Make any investments necessary to eliminate all remaining advisories.
  • Make sure resources & training are in place to prevent future advisories.
  • Move forward on agreement in principle to resolve national class action litigation.
  • Maintain commitment to invest $6B to ensure sustainable access to clean water for First Nations.

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Conservative

  • Recognise safe drinking water as a fundamental human right.
  • End long-term drinking water advisories.
  • Target high-risk water systems.
  • Work with Indigenous communities to find new approaches, such as regional or coalition-based governance, that will help ensure water systems investments are protected and continue providing clean drinking water in the long term.
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NDP

Make investments required to ensure clean water and lift all drinking water advisories for good now.
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Green

  • Invest in & upgrade critical infrastructure to ensure safe water access & to be able to lift boil water advisories in every community.
  • Support Indigenous-led processes to implement safe drinking water & wastewater management systems.
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Indigenous Broadband

Liberal

Require that those who have purchased rights to build broadband actually do so.

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Conservative

  • Streamline the application process for broadband programs for Indigenous communities.
  • Provide more support & develop more flexible funding arrangements.
  • Provide technical support during the application process.
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NDP

Expand access to broadband Internet & cell service for rural & remote communities.
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Indigenous Businesses

Liberal

  • Expand the Aboriginal Entrepreneurship Program to enable businesses to access a new, zero-interest loan when a 10% advance is not possible.
  • Create a navigator position to help Indigenous entrepreneurs find programs that apply to their situation.
  • Work with all government departments to analyse &, as appropriate, adjust eligibility criteria to ensure programs are inclusive.

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Conservative

  • Provide $4M over 3 years in targeted funding to train local & regional economic development officers.
  • Develop an Indigenous Business Mentorship Program.
  • Update the First Nations Land Management Act.
  • Improve opportunities for Indigenous businesses to receive government contracts by setting active targets, enforcing govt. accountability, and providing constructive feedback for unsuccessful bidders.

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NDP

  • Work with Indigenous communities to support locally-driven economic development.
  • Create good jobs through infrastructure & public service investments.
  • Work with Indigenous entrepreneurs to find solutions for accessing capital & invest in Indigenous social enterprises & entrepreneurship.
  • Prioritise procurement from Indigenous companies where possible.
  • Dedicate regional economic development support.

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Indigenous Children

Liberal

  • Ensure First Nations youth who reach the age of majority receive the supports they need for up to 2 additional years.
  • Implement orders of the Canadian Human Rights Tribunal.
  • Work with Indigenous partners to ensure compensation for those harmed by the First Nations Child & Family Services program.
  • Fully fund Jordan's Principle & Inuit Child First Initiative.
  • Fund needs of Métis children.

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NDP

  • Immediately take action to respect, support, & resource Indigenous jurisdiction over child welfare systems, backed up with long-term, predictable funding guaranteed in legislation.
  • Fully implement Canadian Human Rights Tribunal orders on funding of child welfare services on reserve.
  • Implement the Spirit Bear Plan.
  • Stop litigation against Indigenous children.
  • Fully implement Jordan's Principle.

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Green

  • Recognise that Indigenous children in residential schools have been replaced by Indigenous children in foster care.
  • Stop fighting the Human Rights Tribunal Orders regarding compensation for child & family victims.
  • Ensure non-status First Nations' children living off-reserve have access to Jordan's Principle.
  • Adopt recommendations on funding for First Nations Child & Family Services from the Institute for Fiscal Studies & Democracy's 2020 report.

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Indigenous Education

NDP

  • Implement Shannen's Dream of equitable access to education with federal investments & infrastructure.
  • Provide financial assistance & increased education opportunities for children who grew up in care.
  • Provide support for post-secondary distance learning for rural & remote students.

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Green

  • Ensure access to quality educational opportunities based on expressed cultural, political, & social priorities of Indigenous governments, following meaningful consultation.
  • Support developing Indigenous education curricula that are language & culture-specific.
  • Remove the 2% funding gap for post-secondary education.
  • Support & sustain the transmission, proliferation, & regeneration of Indigenous cultural works & languages.

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Indigenous Health

Liberal

Fully implement Joyce's Principle & ensure it guides work in co-developing distinctions-based Indigenous Health legislation to foster health systems free from racism & discrimination.

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NDP

  • Close the health gap in Indigenous communities.
  • Support health self-determination.
  • Implement Joyce's Principle.
  • Invest in Indigenous healthcare infrastructure, supplies, & diagnostic equipment.
  • Build a treatment centre for residents affected by long-term mercury exposure.
  • Compensate families affected by mercury poisoning in Grassy Narrows.
  • Support food sovereignty.
  • Reform Nutrition North.

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Green

  • Uphold Jordan's Principle in full.
  • Support First Nations, Métis, & Inuit in rebuilding traditional knowledge systems around healing & wellness, including formally including traditional healing within mental wellness & home & community care programmes.
  • Devote sufficient resources for maternal & infant care.
  • Expand access to non-insured health benefits to all Indigenous people, regardless of Status, residency, membership.

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Indigenous Housing

Liberal

  • Invest $2B more in Indigenous housing w/ over half available by next summer.
  • Work w/ Indigenous partners to develop an Urban, Rural, & Northern Indigenous Housing Strategy, with dedicated investments.
  • Work w/ Indigenous partners to create a National Indigenous Housing Centre w/ Indigenous people overseeing federal Indigenous housing programmes.
  • Make additional investments in Indigenous housing.

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Conservative

Enact a "For Indigenous, By Indigenous" housing strategy.
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NDP

  • Work with Indigenous communities to implement a co-developed, fully-funded Indigenous National Housing Strategy within 100 days of assuming office.
  • Address the mould crisis.

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Green

  • Allow Indigenous organisations to access financing through CMHC for self-determined housing needs.
  • Allocate funding toward urban Indigenous housing providers.
  • Develop & implement an Urban, Rural, & Northern Indigenous Housing Strategy.
  • Transfer federal lands & property to off-reserve Indigenous organisations to create housing.
  • Establish a For Indigenous, By Indigenous housing support program.

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Mental Health

Liberal

Commit an additional $1.4B for a distinctions-based mental health & wellness strategy, for a total investment of $2B over 5 years.

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Conservative

  • Provide $1B over 5 years to boost funding for Indigenous mental health and drug treatment programs.
  • Support innovative approaches, such as land-based treatment programs and programs delivered in Indigenous languages.

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NDP

  • Work in partnership with Indigenous communities to improve access to mental health & addiction treatment services both on & off reserve, including an evidence-based action plan to prevent suicide.
  • Dedicate federal resources.

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Green

  • Increase support for Indigenous-led, culturally safe, mental health programs & services.
  • Ensure all programming is guided by the First Nations Mental Wellness Continuum Framework.
  • Establish permanent funding for land-based, trauma-informed, community addictions care for Indigenous peoples.
  • Double the Aboriginal Health Human Resources Initiative's budget.

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Missing & Murdered Indigenous Women & Girls

Liberal

  • Accelerate implementation of the Federal Pathway to Address Missing & Murdered Indigenous Women, Girls and 2SLGBTQQIA+ People with Indigenous partners.
  • Create a standing Federal-Provincial-Territorial table on Missing & Murdered Indigenous Women, Girls, & 2SLGBTQQIA+ People to facilitate & coordinate this work.

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NDP

  • Work with Indigenous women, the families of the missing & murdered, & Indigenous communities to implement the Calls for Justice from the National Inquiry into Missing & Murdered Indigenous Women & Girls.
  • Establish a comprehensive plan to address violence against Indigenous women, girls, & LGBTQI2S+ People.
  • Ensure full gender equality for First Nations status.

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Green

Implement all Calls for Justice from the Final Report of the National Inquiry into Missing & Murdered Indigenous Women & Girls.
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Natural Resources Development

Conservative

  • Work with Indigenous-led organisations to support Indigenous communities partnering on projects.
  • Guarantee loans to Indigenous groups to invest in projects, based on the Alberta Indigenous Opportunities Corporation.
  • Provide $5B for investment in projects.
  • Provide $10M/y to foster collaboration w/ Indigenous groups.
  • Require govt. to consult with Indigenous communities before cancelling projects.

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On-Reserve Funding

NDP

Fund on-reserve emergency management & prevention, including firefighting training & equipment.
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Policing & the Justice System

NDP

  • Remove most mandatory minimum sentences.
  • Increase the discretion of judges during sentencing.
  • Ensure bail programmes are culturally appropriate.
  • Increase funding for community justice programmes focused on healing & restorative justice.
  • Uphold use of Gladue principles.
  • Develop a First Nations justice & policing strategy.
  • Take steps to end discriminatory policing practices.

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Reconciliation

Liberal

  • Provide funding towards the construction of a permanent home for the National Centre for Truth & Reconciliation.
  • Provide sustained financial support for the Centre for core operations.

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NDP

  • Work in partnership with Indigenous peoples to fully implement UNDRIP & the Truth & Reconciliation Commission's 94 Calls to Action.
  • Co-develop a National Action Plan for Reconciliation.
  • Establish a National Council for Reconciliation.
  • Replace consultation with a standard of free, prior, & informed consent.
  • Respect treaties.
  • Ensure funds for commemorating a National Day for Truth & Reconciliation.

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Green

Implement all 94 Truth & Reconciliation Commission Calls to Action.
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Residential Schools

Liberal

  • Build a national monument in Ottawa to honour residential school survivors & victims.
  • Work with Indigenous partners to appoint a Special Interlocutor to work with governments & Indigenous communities to develop a legal & regulatory framework for justice regarding unmarked graves & make recommendations.
  • Provide support for communities doing burial searches at former Day Schools & Indian Hospitals.

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Conservative

  • Develop a comprehensive plan to implement TRC Calls to Action 71 through 76.
  • Fund investigations at all former residential schools with unmarked graves.
  • Develop a detailed set of resources to educate Canadians of all ages about residential schools.
  • Build a national monument.

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NDP

  • Fund the search for grave sites at former residential schools.
  • Fund the maintenance, commemoration, reburial, & protection of residential school cemeteries according to the wishes of Indigenous families, Survivors, & communities.
  • Establish memorials.
  • Appoint a special prosecutor to pursue those involved in residential schools.
  • Require churches & governments to hand over records.
  • Fund healing.

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Green

  • Provide sustainable funding for new & existing Indigenous Healing Centres to address the harms caused by residential schools.
  • Honour the TRC request for funding for work on the Missing Children & Unmarked Burials Project.
  • Call on the Pope to apologise on behalf of the Catholic Church for its involvement in residential schools.
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Self-Determination

Liberal

  • Support Indigenous-led processes to rebuild & reconstitute nations, advance self-determination, & implement treaties, & land claim & self-government agreements with oversight mechanisms to hold the federal government accountable.
  • Support First Nations-led processes to transition away from the Indian Act.
  • Support & fund the revitalisation of Indigenous laws, legal systems, & traditions.

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Conservative

  • Train young Indigenous leaders, including through the Institute of Corporate Directors.
  • Allow the First Nations Finance Authority to monetise government funding.
  • Consult with First Nations to overhaul current funding models, with the goal of making it easier for First Nations to escape Third-Party Management, reduce red tape, and better incentives for moving towards block funding.

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NDP

  • Co-develop a National Action Plan for Reconciliation, including ensuring rights to self-determination & self-government.
  • Support Inuit self-determination.
  • Recognise Métis self-determination & pursue government-to-government negotiations on issues.

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Green

  • Formally repudiate the doctrines of terra nullius, discovery, & others of superiority.
  • Establish a process to transition from the Indian Act, based on free, prior, & informed consent.
  • Implement the recommendations of the 1996 Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples.
  • Work with Indigenous Peoples & their governing institutions on a nation-to-nation basis.
  • Recognise the rights of non-status & Métis as Indigenous.

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